Russia attacks Ukraine: live update, April 2022


23:09 President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy in the BBC interview 

Russian occupiers destroyed 95% of buildings in Mariupol, and tens of thousands of residents were deported to Russia. 

22:54 Ukrainska Pravda

Russia’s Defence Ministry has admitted that the Moskva cruiser sank – the agency says it happened after a long fire on board while the cruiser was being towed to Sevastopol. 

Earlier it was reported that the cruiser Moskva was hit in the Black Sea operational zone of the Neptune anti-ship missile. The flagship of the Russian Black Sea Fleet was severely damaged. There was a fire. Other units of the ship’s group tried to help, but a storm and a powerful ammunition explosion overturned the cruiser, so it began to sink.

22:16 Centre for Countering Disinformation at the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine

Centre for Countering Disinformation collected fakes that the enemy spread on April 14, 2022:

  • In the Ukrainian and Russian segments of social networks, a video was spread in which representatives of the “Right Sector” allegedly forced servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine to carry out executions of civilians. According to the video, this was to be “revenge for Bucha”;
  • The Russian Defense Ministry claims that “Ukrainian specialists under the supervision of American scientists took water samples in large rivers of Ukraine to spread the pathogens of cholera, typhoid fever, and hepatitis”;
  • The Russian Defense Ministry claims that “Ukrainian nationalists plan to blow up the overpass over the railway in Kramatorsk district to accuse the Russian Federation of destroying important infrastructure.”

21:34 Ukrainska Pravda citing the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Denys Monastyrskyi

When the Russian occupiers fled Chornobyl, they robbed a police station where radioactive items seized from citizens were stored

“They took a lot of things, in particular, they robbed a police station right on the territory of Chornobyl. There were seized radioactive items. They have disappeared, so we understand that they are now in parcels sent from Belarus to Russia. Do not envy those mothers and wives who will receive such gifts.”

21:05 Ievhen Ryshchuk, mayor of Oleshky, Kherson region

The Russian army enters the city of Oleshki in the Kherson region, the Russian flag is already hanging over the city hall. 

According to Ryshchuk, a lot of locals have left, however the city’s utility services are working.

The mayor warned that the Russians intend to patrol the streets. Ryshchuk asks locals not to leave their homes during the curfew.

20:34 Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine

Verkhovna Rada has banned symbols used by the Russian armed forces in the war against Ukraine.

Bill № 7214 recognizes the Russian state as a terrorist state, one of the goals of whose political regime is the genocide of the Ukrainian people, physical destruction, mass murder of Ukrainian citizens, international crimes against civilians, use of prohibited methods of war, destruction of civilian and critical facilities infrastructure, artificial creation of a humanitarian catastrophe in Ukraine or its regions.

The political regime of the Russian Federation is recognized as Nazi in its essence and practice and ideologically imitates the National Socialist (Nazi) totalitarian regime that existed in Hitler’s Germany.

The bill prohibits the propaganda of the Russian Nazi totalitarian regime, the armed aggression of the Russian Federation as a terrorist state against Ukraine.

20:08 Forbes Ukraine

Since the beginning of the war, the Ukrainian army has destroyed 5,260 units of enemy equipment. Among them, the Russian missile cruiser Moskva is Russia’s most expensive military loss in the war with Ukraine. It costs about $750 million.

19:51 Igor Terekhov, mayor of Kharkiv

The intensity of shelling has increased in Kharkiv. In the evening the city was hit again.

“The situation is tense. Since the beginning of the war, the enemy has been shelling the city constantly, and the geography of bombing has sharply expanded. There are practically no areas where shells have not hit”, said Igor Terekhov.

19:27 Ukrainska Pravda

The governor of the Belgorod region of the Russian Federation, Vyacheslav Gladkov, allegedly claimed that Ukraine had shelled the village of Zhuravlyovka, from which residents had previously been evacuated, as well as the village of Spodaryushino.

Earlier on Thursday, Gladkov also announced “shelling” by Ukraine of the village of Spodaryushino, Grayvoron city district. However, he said at the time that there were no casualties among the civilian population, as well as the destruction of housing and social facilities.

18:41 General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

Operational information as of 18.00 on 14.04.2022 regarding the Russian invasion

The fiftieth day of the heroic opposition of the Ukrainian people against the Russian military invasion continues.

The enemy is trying to complete preparations for an offensive operation in the Eastern Operational Zone. The aviation group and the command and control system are being built up.

The enemy continues to launch missile and bomb attacks on infrastructure facilities and residential areas of cities and villages of our state.

In order to conduct hostilities on the territory of Ukraine, the occupiers are training additional units of the Northern Fleet and the 8th All-Military Army of the Southern Military District of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. To provide units with weapons and military equipment, measures are being taken to remove them from long-term storage at bases and warehouses.

According to the available information, the losses in the 126th Separate Coastal Defense Brigade (Perevalne) and the 127th Separate Reconnaissance Brigade (Sevastopol) amount to more than 50 percent of the personnel.

The command of the Russian army fails to implement plans to mobilize human resources in the North Caucasus region to participate in the war against Ukraine. The main reason is the reluctance of the population of this region to take part in hostilities.

Due to the critical situation with the staffing of combat units, the command of the armed forces of the Russian Federation plans to begin a new process of mobilization at the national level. According to the plan, the mobilization, in order to hide it, will be carried out in parallel with the planned conscription.

  • The situation in the Volyn and Polissya areas has not changed significantly. There is a movement of units of the 36th All-Military Army of the Eastern Military District by rail from the territory of the Gomel region of the Republic of Belarus. The threat of missile strikes from the territory of Belarus on the objects of our State remains.
  • In the Northern direction, the enemy is regrouping units with their further concentration in the areas bordering Ukraine. From the territory of the Bryansk and Kursk regions there is a movement to the Belgorod and Voronezh regions of Russia.
  • In the Slobozhanshchyna direction, the occupiers are conducting reconnaissance of probable areas of attack, increasing the system of reconnaissance and medical support. Stocks are being replenished.

The partial blockade and shelling of the city of Kharkiv continues.

In the city of Belgorod, the enemy deployed a unit of information and psychological operations of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in order to intensify measures of psychological influence on units of the Defense Forces of Ukraine and the civilian population of Kharkiv region. The goal is to demoralize and end the resistance.

The occupiers continue to prepare for active action in the areas of Slovyansk and Barvinkove.

  • In the Donetsk direction, the enemy, with the support of aircraft and artillery, continues to attack in certain directions. The main efforts are focused on establishing control over the settlements of Popasna, Rubizhne, Severodonetsk and Slovyansk.

The enemy tried to break through our defenses in the areas of Rubizhne, Novotoshkivske and Marinka. He was not successful. He continued to launch air strikes on Mariupol.

There have been no significant changes in the situation in the South Bug region.

  • In the Black Sea and Azov operational zones, enemy naval groups continue to carry out tasks to isolate the area of ​​hostilities and reconnaissance.

We believe in the Armed Forces of Ukraine! Let’s win together! Glory to Ukraine!

18:34 Radio Liberty

Verkhovna Rada recognized the actions of Russian troops in Ukraine since February 24 as genocide of the Ukrainian people.

MPs passed a resolution which approves recognizing the genocide.

“The actions committed by the RF Armed Forces are not just a crime of aggression, but pursue the goal of systematic and consistent destruction of the Ukrainian people, their identity and deprivation of their right to self-determination and independent development. This requires immediate recognition of the actions committed by the RF Armed Forces during the last phase of the Russian armed aggression against Ukraine, which began on February 24, 2022, as genocide of the Ukrainian people”, the explanatory note to the resolution reads.

17:49 Novoye Vremya

Russia’s Defense Ministry has invented new fakes about Ukraine – now it is a “water biological” weapon.

During a briefing, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that there is another type of biological laboratory in Ukraine: it collects pathogens of cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A and E in the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube and North Crimean canals to “draw conclusions about the possibility of their spread by water “to Russia.

Of course, the ministry also did not forget to mention that all this is happening through American scientists.

17:43 Reuters

Moldova on Thursday accused the Russian army of trying to recruit Moldovan citizens for the war in Ukraine.

“Such actions do not promote peace for all of us, our fellow citizens, our families. Such things are very dangerous and must be stopped,” said Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicu Popescu.

17:27 Dmytro Zhyvytskyi, head of the Sumy Regional Military Administration

For the first time in 10 days, the Russians fired artillery or mortar shells at the border settlements of Sumy Region. 120-mm mines were dropped, private houses were damaged. One mine destroyed a private house, flew straight into the living apartment. The Russians shelled the village of Velyka Pisarivka.

16:42 Operational Command “South”

The occupiers continue to fire on the civilian population of Chernihiv region with weapons prohibited by international law.

Today the invaders aimed at one of the private houses in Horodnia. Previously, the strike was made from the Tactical Operational Missile Complex “Tochka”.

15:26 Pavlo Kyrylenko, head of the Donetsk Regional Military Administration

Since the beginning of the large-scale invasion, the occupiers have destroyed 120 schools, 103 kindergartens, 37 universities in Donetsk region

14:57 Vice Prime Minister Iryna VereshchukThe fourth exchange of prisoners of war took place. 5 officers and 17 servicemen were exchanged. Also 8 civilians, including 1 woman, were released. In total, 30 of our citizens are going home today.

14:56 Ukriform citing the Crimean Human Rights Group

In the occupied Crimea, a resident complained about a yellow and blue manicure of a woman in Yalta. She was summoned to the Federal Security Service and forced to erase her manicure.

14:20 Centre for Countering Disinformation at the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine

Russia’s special services have begun implementing a plan to carry out staged terrorist attacks on their territory to fuel anti-Ukrainian hysteria.

As of April 14, there have been several “terrorist attacks” on the Russian border, in which the Russian leadership accuses Ukrainian sabotage and intelligence groups, including:

  • Russian media, citing the governor of the Kursk region, said that on April 13, there was a shelling of the Russian border patrol in the Korenevsky district. The report states that the shelling took place from a forest strip on Ukrainian territory;
  • the FSB of the Russian Federation reported that on April 14, a border checkpoint in the Bryansk region was shelled by Ukraine, as a result of which two cars were damaged and no one was injured.

Earlier, the Centre for Countering Disinformation warned of the enemy’s intentions to commit a series of terrorist acts on the Russian border to consolidate the Russians against the Ukrainians.

13:52 Head of the Luhansk Regional Military Administration Serhii HaidaiThe Russians have once again opened fire on Kreminna in recent days. There are damaged houses that are still under inspection. Currently, two people were injured by shell fragments. The state of health of woman and man is moderate. The issue of their evacuation to medical institutions in other regions is being resolved.

12:54 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine

The MFA of Ukraine welcomes the publication of the comprehensive Report on violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, war crimes, and crimes against humanity committed by the Russian Federation and its armed forces during the ongoing war of aggression against Ukraine.

“The findings of the Report clearly testify to the fact that Russia’s violations are on a scale that the international community has not seen in Europe in decades and that urgent action is needed to stop the aggressor-state. The recognition in the Report that certain parts of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions have also been occupied by Russia since 2014 is of crucial importance,” the MFA of Ukraine stated

12:43 Operational Command “South”

The cruiser Moskva was hit in the Black Sea operational zone of the anti-ship missile “Neptune”. The flagship of the Russian Black Sea Fleet was severely damaged. There was a fire. Other units of the ship’s group tried to help, but a storm and a powerful explosion of ammunition overturned the cruiser, so it began to sink.

12:40 Head of the State Boarder Guard Service Serhii Deineko In the Kyiv region, Ukrainian border guards have reached the Vilcha checkpoint on the border with Belarus. The Russians destroyed its infrastructure while they were stationing there. The danger of mining and shelling remains. In particular, yesterday in the Chernihiv region, the Russians opened fire with grenade launchers and small arms from their Pogar checkpoint.

12:39 Chief Directorate of Intelligence of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine

Two Ukrainian pilots who were held captive by the Russian occupiers were released by the Ministry of Defence. Ivan Pepeliashko and Oleksii Chyzh were taken prisoner on March 8 near the village of Nova Basan, Chernihiv region. 

The place of detention for Ukrainian pilots was changed several times, and finally, they were taken to the Kursk pre-trial detention center, where they were kept in a cell with eight other Ukrainian officers. Ivan Pepelyashko says that despite the serious injuries in the pre-trial detention center, most Ukrainians do not receive basic medical care: “The boys are holding on, but most of the wounds have started to fester. The Russians were asked to give at least bandages and zelenka (ed. – brilliant green for disinfection of fresh postoperative and post-traumatic scars), to take care of the hardest. But in vain.”

At the same time, exhausting interrogations continued. Oleksii Chyzh recalls that every interrogation traditionally began with Putin’s propaganda that Lenin had invented Ukraine: “We were forced to record propaganda videos. If they refused, they threatened to stop bandaging our comrades’ wounds. They said that the inflamed parts would be cut off piece by piece. They mentioned our families and the danger they face.” “They repeated that they want to liberate Ukraine from the Nazis. That we will soon live in one country again, and Halychyna will be taken away by Poland,” says Ivan Pepelyashko.

12:34 Security Service of Ukraine 

Russia has tried to use criminal activity to shake up the situation in the Odesa region. The SSU neutralized a powerful criminal group that cooperated with the enemy and wanted to join the occupiers if the Russians captured the city.

11:41 Ukrinform

The Chairman of the Senate of the Czech Republic Miloš Vystrčil together with several fellow senators arrived in Kyiv at the invitation of the Chairman of The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Senate Vice President Jiří Růžička, Senator Pavel Fischer, as well as Polish senators led by Marshal Tomasz Grodzki also arrived by train with Vystrčil, according to media reports.

11:38 Ukrainian Parliamentary Commissioner for Human Rights Liudmyla Denisova

From the information sources of the aggressor country, it became known that the Council of the Russian Federation proposes to introduce systematic work on teaching Russian to young Ukrainians who were deported from Donetsk and Luhansk regions to Russia.

Children who speak and understand Ukrainian will be forced to learn the aggressor’s language for assimilation and study in Russian schools.

According to Russian media, more than 150,000 Ukrainian children have already been deported to Russia.

The authorities of the occupying country plan to destroy the essence and language of young Ukrainians and erase their memory and all ties with Ukraine.

Such actions violate Article 29 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates that a child’s education should be aimed at fostering respect for the child’s parents, cultural identity, language, and national values of the child’s country of origin.

I appeal to the UN Commission for Investigation of Human Rights Violations during the Russian Military Invasion of Ukraine and the expert mission set up by the OSCE participating States following the Moscow Mechanism to take into account these violations of the rights of Ukrainian children.

11:32 State Service of Special Communication and Information Protection of Ukraine

A new cyberattack aimed at data theft has been recorded.

Enemy hackers are once again attacking Ukrainians using “hot” military themes. This time – about mobilization.

The government’s computer emergency response team CERT-UA, which operates under the auspices of the State Special Service, warns of the widespread distribution of dangerous XLS documents called “Mobilization Register.xls” among Ukrainian citizens.

Opening the document will eventually launch the malicious program IcedID, also known as BankBot, on your computer. It belongs to the class of “banking Trojans” and, among other things, provides theft of authentication data.

11:28 Ukrainska Pravda citing the Adviser to the Mayor of Matiupol Petro Andriushchenko

In Mariupol, the Russian occupiers are urging civilians to wear a white ribbon, which is a hostile symbol, to make people a “lure” for Ukrainian snipers. 

“Danger for residents. The occupiers are urging Mariupol residents to wear a white ribbon as a mark of “our”. In this way, the Russians are once again using the civilian population as “bait” for snipers and soldiers of our army. Because this is the mark used by the Russian army and can be mistaken for the real enemy

We received information about the introduction by the occupiers of certain passes – permits to move around the city. We specify, but in a heap with special marks “own” all this reminds real segregation and transformation of Mariupol into the real ghetto for Ukrainians as Nazis did.”

11:18 Centre for Strategic Communications and Information Security

The Russians are spreading fakes about the American general. AFU StratCom wrote about the Kremlin’s fabrications. 

  • In early April, Russian Telegram channels’ top piece of news spread was that US Army Lt. Gen. Roger Cloutier Jr., Commander of the Allied Land Command, had been taken prisoner in Mariupol.
  • According to a version imposed by Russian propagandists, he was killed back on 28th March, while according to another one, he was taken as a prisoner. For the sake of persuasiveness, a dubious video involving actors was even shot.
  • Even though Major Brian Andris, a spokesman for NATO Allied Command, has immediately officially refuted the general’s alleged death and captivity, Russian fake machines are still stubbornly unravelling the story.

11:05 Ministry of Defence of Ukraine

Russia planned to seize Ukraine under the guise of strategic military exercises.

Documents obtained by Ukraine’s military intelligence testify to the occupiers’ intentions to seize the capital of Ukraine. In particular, the group of Russian troops “Center”, which operated in the Chernihiv and Sumy areas, was tasked with capturing the left bank of Kyiv.

This is stated in the combat order of the commander of the 96th separate reconnaissance brigade, which he received from the headquarters of the 1st Panzer Army of the Western Military District.

The document defines the stages of the offensive and the tasks for the brigade personnel.

11:03 State Bureau of Investigation

The State Bureau of Investigation has exposed the leader of the faction of the pro-Russian OPZZh party of the Mariupol City Council for possible assistance to the aggressor state.

11:02 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine

During the ongoing full-scale aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, the Russian occupiers continue, in violation of international law, to resort to unacceptable actions – illegal and forced movement of Ukrainian citizens, including children, in particular orphans, children deprived of parental care and children, whose parents died as a result of Russia’s military aggression, across the state borders into Russia.

The threat of illegal adoption of Ukrainian children by Russian citizens without following all the necessary procedures set out in Ukrainian law is blatant.

The actions of the Russian occupiers can be qualified as kidnapping and require a decisive reaction of the international community, especially the relevant international organizations.

The full text of the statement is on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

11:01 Security Service of Ukraine

Russian servicemen in intercepted conversations boast of a new “entertainment” – crushing civilians’ cars with tanks

While the official Kremlin denies any allegations of atrocities by the Russian occupiers, they are happy to discuss it in private.

“Now I know that my “tractor” calmly runs over the car,” said the Russian invader, who was standing near Kyiv a few weeks ago.

“And how fast should you go?”, the conversation partner asks. This is the only question that interested him.

“I fucked around 40 km/h. Flew, God forbid! I thought it would not get back on wheels”, the enemy soldier replies. He calls it “sports interest”.

10:30 General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

The total combat losses of the enemy from 24.02 to 14.04 were approximately:

personnel – about 19900, 

tanks ‒ 753, 

APV  ‒ 1968, 

artillery systems – 366, 

MLRS – 122, 

Anti-aircraft warfare systems – 64,

aircraft – 160, 

helicopters – 144, 

vehicles – 1437,

boats / cutters – 7,

fuel tanks – 76, 

UAV operational-tactical level – 134.

Special equipment – 25.

Mobile SRBM system – 4.

Data are being updated. The calculation is complicated by the high intensity of hostilities. 

Strike the occupier! Let’s win together!

9:52 Suspilne TV, City council of Hola Prystan

The Russian occupiers continue to illegally detain residents of the Kherson region

In the Kherson region, the Russian military abducted another resident of Nova Zburiivka, Anatoly Matior. Instead, Serhiy Leonov returned home from Gladkivka.

The Russians keep holding the mayor of Hola Prystan captive. The situation with other abductees has not changed. Their whereabouts are still unknown, the report said.

9:50 State Bureau of Investigation

At the request of the SBI and the Office of the Prosecutor General, the court arrested 154 more objects of movable and immovable property of the Medvedchuk family.

8:30 Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine

197 children died as a result of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine

In general, more than 548 children have been suffered in Ukraine since February 24, 2022 as a result of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation. 197 children died and more than 351 received injuries of varying severity.

These data are not final, as investigation is underway in places of active hostilities, in the temporarily occupied and liberated territories.

According to the data received by juvenile prosecutors, the most affected children were in Donetsk region – 115, Kyiv region – 105, Kharkiv – 81, Chernihiv – 54, Mykolaiv – 40, Kherson – 38, Luhansk – 36, Zaporizhia – 23, Kyiv city – 16, Sumy – 16, Zhytomyr – 15.

6:53 General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

The operational update regarding the russian invasion on 06.00 on April 14, 2022. 

Video (Spokesman for the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Oleksandr Shtupun)

The fiftieth day of the heroic resistance of the Ukrainian people to a russian military invasion continues. A russian federation continues its full-scale armed aggression against Ukraine.

A russian enemy continues to build an aviation group near the eastern border of our state, strengthens artillery units, optimizes existing command systems, intelligence and medical support.

There is a constant threat of russian enemy use of missile weapons throughout Ukraine.

The russian occupiers continue to launch systematic missile and bomb strikes on military and civilian infrastructure in Kharkiv, Donetsk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts.

  • The enemy did not take active action in the Volyn and Polissya areas. Certain units of the belarusian Armed Forces continue to carry out tasks to cover the Ukrainian-belarusian border in Brest and Gomel regions. Planned combat training activities are underway.

In the belarusian town of Kholmych, at the checkpoints, the military police of the armed forces of the russian federation and the republic of belarus are checking personal phones. Civilians are informed that Ukrainian units may attack belarus at any time.

  • In the Siversky direction, the enemy is regrouping units of the Central Military District from the territory of the Bryansk and Kursk regions. After restoring combat capability, it concentrated these units in the Belgorod and Voronezh regions. The russian enemy strengthens border control, conducts engineering equipment for positions, bases and ensures the presence of a small number of personnel, weapons and military equipment.
  • In the Slobozhansky direction, the russian enemy conducts reconnaissance of probable areas of attack, increases the system of reconnaissance, management and medical support. It continues to partially block the city of Kharkiv and shells the city with artillery, regroups units and replenishes supplies.
  • In the Donetsk and Tavriya directions, the russian enemy fought in the Slavyansk, Popasna, and Kurakhovo districts and stormed the city of Mariupol. It was not successful and the fighting continues.

Strengthening of grouping of the russian enemy around Severodonetsk is carried out by the expense of separate divisions of the 2nd All Arms Army of the Central military district.

Coercive mobilization measures continue in the temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts. Thus, in the city of Horlivka, daily tours of private houses and apartment blocks are held.

In addition, it was established that the russian command set a task to mobilize 60-70 thousand people on the territory of the so-called “DPR”. However, these figures were met by only 20 percent.

  • In the South Buh area, the russian enemy is taking measures to restore combat capability, replenish ammunition, and take measures to engineering equipment positions, exercises fire on units of our troops.
  • The russian enemy is fighting in the area of ​​Alexandrivka. It is trying to resume the offensive in order to regain lost ground in the Osokorivka area.

On the territory of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts, the defenders of Ukraine repulsed eight enemy attacks, destroyed a tank, four armored units and six vehicles, as well as one enemy artillery system.

Units of anti-aircraft missile forces of the previous day shot down two enemy fighters.

We believe in the Armed Forces of Ukraine! Let’s win together! Glory to Ukraine!

4:40 Ukrainska Pravda, The Guardian

Australia has imposed another package of sanctions against Russia due to the invasion of Ukraine – in particular, the sanctions list of Gazprom and Transneft.

A total of 13 companies are blacklisted. In addition to the oil and gas sector, Australia has imposed sanctions on Russia’s largest telecommunications company, Rostelecom, Russia’s largest electricity producer, RusHydro, shipping companies and ports, and the diamond mining company Alrosa.

0:37 Ministry of Defence of Ukraine

In an intercepted conversation, a Russian serviceman said that Putin had ordered to level Ukrainian cities to the ground.

Another interception of conversations between enemy servicemen and revelations of the Russian command’s plans for the war in Ukraine has been received.

Thus, the mobilized army of the aggressor, Oleg Karasev, told his wife about the instructions received by the Russian military on further action in Ukraine: “Putin said that if we do not do a f*ck (anything) by May 10, then everything will be leveled”.